This is a comprehensive guide to the role of anesthesiologists in medical missions. In their capacity as perioperative physicians, anesthesiologists improve the safety and efficacy of surgical interventions for underserved patients in low- and middle-income countries around the world. Contributions from international experts in global health provide essential historical context, practical medical and surgical considerations for planning missions, and scenarios of “on the ground” implementation of care. The final section considers anesthesiology education in the context of global health. This is an encompassing and eye-opening resource for trainees and physicians considering participating in a medical mission and students and faculty of global health.